I. Kinds of Style
B. Approach--Included here are all figures of thought, i.e. modes of presenting ideas other than direct statement. Note that approaches may sometimes be combined (e.g., Barbara Jordan combines antithesis with accumulation in her "Statement on the Articles of Impeachment" at paragraph 22).
"I ran to his side and held him and called his name, but he was limp and still, without breath or pulse. His eyes were open with the empty stare of death. And we prayed, the two of us there in the gutter, with only my voice. His injuries inside and out were massive, and for terrible days he lingered between life and death. Tipper and I spent the next 30 days and nights there at his bedside.
"Our family was lifted and healed in no small measure by an incredible outpouring of love and compassion and prayers from thousands and thousands of people, most of whom we never even knew.
"Albert is plenty brave and strong, and with the support of three wonderful sisters, Korrina, Kristin and Sarah, and two loving parents, who helped him with his exercises every morning and prayed for him every night, he pulled through. And now, thank God, he has fully recovered and runs and plays and torments his older sisters like any little boy." (Great Speeches, Appendix)
"It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds.'" (Great Speeches 298)
"As I considered this question, my mind returned to a debate that took place in this Security Council some 21 years ago, when my distinguished predecessor, Governor Adlai Stevenson of Illinois, called the attention of the Council to the unmistakable evidence that a series of facilities for launching offensive nuclear missiles were being installed in the Western hemisphere. Soviet representative Ambassador Zorin flatly denied those charges and, as Soviet representatives so often do, coupled his denial with a vicious attack on the United States. Calling our attention to threatening Soviet behavior, Zorin asserted, only masked the United States' own aggression and piracy. But Adlai Stevenson too had evidence to back up his charge, photographic evidence as irrefutable as the audio tapes we have heard today. The fact is that violence and lies are regular instruments of Soviet policy. Soviet officials regularly behave as though truth were only a function of force and will; as if the truth were only what they said it is; as if violence were an instrument of first resort in foreign affairs.
"We are reminded once again that the Soviet Union is a State based on the dual principles of callousness and mendacity dedicated to the rule of force. Here is how Lenin described the dictatorship of the proletariat in 1920. He said, and I quote:
The scientific concept of dictatorship means nothing more than unrestricted power, absolutely unimpeded by law or regulations and resting directly on force.
b. Expectedness (usual versus unusual--including foreign words)
c. Contemporeity (archaisms, typical words, new words--including neologisms)
b. Collision of vowels
c. Repetition of sounds
d. Expected orders
b. Number of clauses in sentences
c. Interrelation of clauses (coordinate versus subordinate)
Martin Luther King, "I Have a Dream" (3): "But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land."
Jesse Jackson, "Common Sense and Common Ground" (43): "Suffering breeds character. Character breeds faith."
Jesse Jackson, "The Rainbow Coalition" (11): "But our healthy competition should make us better, not bitter."
Jesse Jackson, "The Rainbow Coalition" (47): " . . . just because you're born in a slum, does not mean the slum is born in you . . ."
Hubert Humphrey, "Vice Presidential Acceptance Speech" (14):"The temporary spokesman of the Republican Party-yes the temporary Republican spokesman is not only out of tune with the great majority of his countrymen he is even out of step with his own party. In the last 3 1/2 years most Democrats and Republicans have agreed on the great decisions our nation has made, but not the Republican spokesman, not Senator Goldwater."
Ronald Reagan, "Tribute to the Challenger Astronauts" (2): "And perhaps we've forgotten the courage it took for the crew of the shuttle; but they, the Challenger Seven, were aware of the dangers, but overcame them and did their jobs brilliantly."
Proper name for a noun
Barbara Jordan, "Keynote Address" [Democratic National Convention 1976] (1): "A lot of years passed since 1832, and during that time it would have been most unusual for any national political party to ask a Barbara Jordan to deliver a keynote address, but tonight I am here."
Lloyd Bentsen, "Vice Presidential Debate, 1988": [to Dan Quayle] "I knew Jack Kennedy. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy."
Jesse Jackson, "Common Sense and Common Ground (10): "When we do not come together we never win. In 1968, division and despair in July led to our defeat in November. In 1980, rancor in the spring and the summer led to Reagan in the fall. When we divide we cannot win."
Reference to Thing Contained in place of Container (Possession)
Geraldine Ferraro, "Vice Presidential Acceptance Speech (3): "I became and assistant district attorney, and I put my share of criminals behind bars."
Martin Luther King, "I Have a Dream" (16): "I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification . . ."
Jesse Jackson, "Common Sense and Common Ground" (4): "My right and my privilege to stand here before you has been won, won in my lifetime, by the blood and the sweat of the innocent."
Whole for Part
John Kennedy, "Inaugural Address (20): "Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. [Kennedy refers to the United States of America by use of a more encompassing term; see, The Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language, s.v. "synecdoche."]
Jesse Jackson, "Common Sense and Common Ground" (27): " What's the fundamental challenge of our day? It is to end economic violence. Plant closing without notice, economic violence."
b. Beginnings of clauses and sentences
c. Internal to clauses and sentences